All Residential Properties In Toronto Can Now Become Four Units As-Of-Right

Real Estate


Welcome to the Urbaneer blog on housing, culture, and design! I’m Steve Fudge and I’m celebrating 34 years as a realtor and property consultant in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

In May 2023 the City of Toronto introduced the ‘as-of-right’ to permit multiplexes up to four units in locations that were previously the domain of single-family dwellings! Here’s what the Globe & Mail had to say –> “Toronto City Council Approves Up To Four-Unit Multiplexes In All Neighbourhoods“.

This Zoning By-Law Amendment comes at a critical time in Toronto’s housing history, and is the result of a ‘Multiplex Study’ that was part of Toronto’s Expanding Housing Options In Neighbourhoods Initiative. The amendment permits multiplexes to be built in all areas designated Residential. The hope is that this will help ease the housing crisis by densifying neighbourhoods formerly occupied by predominantly single-family dwellings in ‘yellowbelt neighbourhoods‘ and diversifying options for Toronto residents. Here’s a great resource map about Yellowbelt areas.

Prior to this multiplex policy, one could have an accessory suite (basement apartment) in their residence and, providing it meets the required setback and access criteria, a laneway dwelling (as of 2019) or garden suite (as of 2022). Now one will be able to construct four units and, if done strategically, also a laneway or garden suite.

The height limit for residential buildings has also been increased to 10 metres – which is a height limit that already exists in some, but not all, city neighbourhoods. East York, for example, has historically had a height limit of 8.5 metres. Also, the as-of-right allows for up to two porches/decks/balconies per unit (which are sensible fire escapes) and they’ve also lifted restrictions on multiple front entrances for secondary suites. What? Did you know before this new as-of-right, anyone adding a basement apartment could not install a door that faced the street unless it was pre-existing? This is because, historically, public sentiment (more like ratepayers) believed two doors to two units facing the street in a single-family neighbourhood was quite unbecoming!



Because Toronto Will Always Need More Housing

With an education in Urban Planning, I’ve always recommended to my clients seeking freehold property in the central core to anticipate that one day the City would increase the permissible density. After all, this is how cities grow. And given Toronto has become the new global frontier, it will always be growing – notwithstanding the occasional market wobbles that accompany things like inflation and rising interest rates. The reality is that the scarcity of land relative to the estimates of population growth means the incoming supply of shelter will have to be created in more innovative ways. As a result, owning land represents a huge opportunity. The strategy to ‘buy & hold’ is a fundamental truth for Toronto real estate. And it will remain this way for decades.

With this new multiplex as-of-right, many residential properties will see their value increase because one will be able to generate a higher return on investment, either through the creation of more income or more profit. For example, the construction of four condominium units will generally garner higher sums in total than the sale of one single-family dwelling on the same site. Or a property on a corner lot with one house may be able to become townhouses with entrances facing both streets and collectively be worth more. Incidentally, even had multiplex permission not been granted, the resulting scarcity of centrally-located single-family dwellings relative to the number of mid and high-density condominium units being constructed to accommodate a growing population would also inevitably increase the value of these properties. In fact, it’s feasible that over time when there are more multiunit dwellings constructed in yellowbelt neighhourhoods than single-family dwellings, the rarity of a 1 household ‘Forever Home’ in the central core may garner a higher premium than a site with multiunits. This, however, is decades away. In the interim, as more mid-rise condos are constructed on arterial roads and high-rise towers are built near transit stops, a generous percentage of those occupants overlooking the surrounding low-density residences will be coveting a residence terra firma (even if there will now be 4 or 5 units on a lot)!

For win-win always anticipate opportunity.



Our past listing: A Stately Edwardian Duplex With Lower Level Suite, Steps To High Park


Multi Units Again, But Different

While the multiplex in Toronto may seem new, it’s not. First, I don’t know exactly when the City of Toronto catalogued every dwelling for taxation purposes (does anyone know whether it was in the 40s, 50s, 60s, or 70s?) but Land Registry does identify many originally constructed single-family dwellings as ‘Legal Non-Conforming’ duplexes, triplexes and multi-units because they were being used as such at the time the City was creating its taxation records.

There are also many areas in the central core where purpose-built multiplexes exist including established affluent neighbourhoods like Rosedale, Moore Park, and Chaplin Estates that were constructed in the 1920s through 1940s. And there are the ubiquitous ‘Toronto Special’ duplexes to fourplexes constructed in the 1950s and 1960s that pop up as infill dwellings and in locations like St Clair West, Eglinton West and Riverdale, like our 2023 listing here:


A Smash Hit Trophy In The Making On Tennis Crescent In Riverdale – NOW SOLD!

Well-situated, well-proportioned, and welcoming, this family-friendly residence is an ideal opportunity for those seeking customizable space (and a lot of it!) in a superb coveted neighbourhood. Check it out!




A Swell Dwell On Tennis Crescent

This 2-storey mid-century modern residence of around 1600 square feet was constructed in 1961, with a near 400sf extension added at the rear in the early 1970s when concrete block foundations, double-coursings of bricks, and wood frame construction were used to build sensible, practical, and efficient dwellings during the post-WWII boom. Bursting with opportunity, either in its current use as a single or 2-family home, to accommodate a multigenerational household, for a contemporary reinvention into a Forever Home, or to take advantage of the City of Toronto’s new ‘as-of-right’ bylaw permitting multiplexes up to four units, this property offers around 2000 square feet of above-grade living space (with a further 940 square feet in the lower level plus the 260sf garage). And, with a generous 23 x 125-foot lot including a lush landscaped garden and a double-wide private drive that can accommodate at least three vehicles plus a one-car garage, this residence could be expanded with Committee of Adjustment approvals to be around 2875 square feet above grade! What does this mean? It’s feasible one could add a third floor to create a duplicate 2-bed suite like the existing one on the second level of this property, or a 2-storey 1600 square foot residence on the second and third levels. While some people might convert the lower level into a self-contained unit, it would be more economical to make the Main and Lower Levels a generous 4-bed suite with a private garden which would be a fantastic family residence. And if you’re seeking a Forever Home, this could be nearly 4000 square foot space for your laughing barking brood!




Will The Ability To Create Multiplexes Help Or Hinder Affordability?

While introducing more supply into the market should help demand, whether it helps keep prices more affordable is debatable as this Better Dwelling article explores –> “Toronto’s Real Estate Bubble May Have Just Got A Price Floor From Politicians“.

As this article states, real estate values are ultimately dictated by the “highest and best use”, which in this case means that what had been previously allocated for single-family homes, will now have the opportunity to house up to four units (+ garden suite or laneway home) which will propel property values upwards. This is true over the long term because any change in urban land use that allows more units and/or more density in-demand locations will go up in value. But there are a couple of factors to consider.

First, the escalation in the value of single-family sites will not be instant. It will take time for the tide of values to turn, and the amount of price appreciation will depend on a host of other factors including location, lot size,  and market demand.

Second, although the value of the land will increase, the fact these single-family sites can now have four units+ means that more economical housing options will be available to the population at large than if the site only contained one single-family dwelling that had a total square footage of all four units combined (which is effectively what the as-of-right policy allows).




It Takes Time

Just because the opportunity to make a single-family property four units does not instantly drive a property’s value up.

First, this portends that developers and investors have deeper pockets than end-users, which simply isn’t the case. The end-user – typically a household of two or more purchasing for their principal residence – is the dominant buyer profile who has been locking down single-family dwellings in Yellowbelt neighbourhoods for decades. The demand for shelter by this group is abundant. The price they pay doesn’t have to take into account the costs of redeveloping a site such as soft costs, hard costs, and required return on investment into a proforma to determine if they can make a sufficient margin of profit for it to be financially feasible.

Nor do they have to ensure they’re attaining a certain cap rate to make it an intelligent investment after calculating the rents against their maintenance, repair, and operating expenses. Instead, the price they pay is one based on the possibility of four evaluating factors: 1) the rational prudent educated assessment of value based on nearby comparable sales; 2) the emotional premium for a particularly appealing ‘prince charming of bricks and mortar’, whatever that may be; 3) the motivation price to secure it when the buyers may imminently have nowhere to live other than with their in-laws and; 4) the exhaustion sum that accompanies buyer’s fatigue of trying to secure a purchase. Here’s my post called –> The Four Values Of Real Estate For Bidding Wars And Bully Offers In Any Market Climate (Plus Cats!).

At the time of writing this article, I am not aware of any study that analyzes property values before and after the introduction of as-of-right laneway housing in 2021 or as-of-right garden suites in 2022 in the City of Toronto that can demonstrate prices increased directly because of these value-added uses. Theoretically, properties that can accommodate these new shelter typologies should be worth more. However, they’re still relatively new so consumers, and even those in the shelter economy, are challenged on exactly how to calculate their worth.

It’s understandable, because not only does one have to weigh the hard and soft costs of building the dwelling against the income it can earn, but make some arbitrary assumptions about what the land the accessory dwelling is located on is worth when it can’t be severed from the primary residence. Furthermore, these housing typologies are recent so consumers haven’t been exposed to enough to this emerging niche market to peg a premium, especially when there are many variables to account for in a fluctuating market including a property’s lot size and its location; the size and condition of the existing dwelling; whether it has on-site parking in the form of front-pad parking, a mutual drive, a private drive or laneway access, but also the motivation of the Seller to sell and the desire of the Buyer to secure this particular parcel of land.

Furthermore, developers tend to be reluctant to take big risks on an untested market rather than building the ‘tried and true’ to garner an anticipated return on investment. Exactly how much profit margin is possible by creating multiple units is not a certainty given it’s a much more complex process (including navigating the bureaucracy that is city hall) than substantially renovating an existing single-family dwelling for a future single-family buyer. In a time of increasing hard and soft costs, it will take at least 3 to 5 years for developers to witness how early adopters are performing before it takes off. And only then will we be able to quantify whether redeveloping former single-family dwellings into multiunits is garnering superior returns. And if the answer is yes, is that still really a problem? It still creates more housing regardless of price point and, truthfully, we need housing of all types as much as ‘affordable housing’, right?




Unfortunately, ‘Affordable Housing’ Isn’t ‘Market Housing’ Anymore In Toronto

I believe housing is a right,  not a privilege, just as education and health care are in Canada. I also believe in a Universal Income for all Canadians. Despite my beliefs, because I’ve been a realtor during a decades-long Housing Crisis – I am vilified for being ‘part of the problem’. And I acknowledge this in my March 2021 post The Affordability Conundrum For Toronto House Buyers: Location, Condition & Costs.

However, there are much bigger fish to fry than little ole me. Not too long ago I was being interviewed by some York University Academics (I am a graduate of York University’s Faculty of Environmental Studies) about Affordable Housing in Toronto where I expressed my disdain towards Canada’s 3 Levels Of Government In Shaping Housing Policy & Programs because, well, our behemoth of a bureaucracy is slowing down the country’s capacity to meet its shelter requirements. In fact, this is one of the bigger reasons why our lack of shelter options over time keeps going from bad to worse.

According to CMHC, “housing is considered “affordable” if it costs less than 30% of a household’s before-tax income.” But even CMHC knows this is unrealistic, given they provide instant approval mortgages to Buyers for sums up to 35% of before-tax income. And while I applaud all of the layers of government that have their programs and policies for creating affordable housing, including the City of Toronto’s Housing Now Plan, is anything anywhere actually getting built? As this CBC article called “No New Affordable Units Built Linked To Toronto’s Housing Now Plan, 4 Years After Inception” states “When Toronto launched its ambitious new housing strategy in 2019, it aimed to transform valuable city-owned lands into 10,000 affordable homes — but more than four years later, not a single shovel is in the ground”.


Quite frankly, instead of CMHC offering a lot of amazing research on what the country needs in the way of housing (they are cranking out a lot of great ideas and content, in fact), and providing funding to support the creation of affordable housing that has too many strings attached to incentivize private developers to build it, the institution and its political backers instead need to get back in the business of building social housing as it did between 1946 and 1993. Because, although as-of-right approvals to create multiplexes is a welcome first step, and will technically help to create supply, we need to build a lot of mid and high-density housing in order to create a meaningful amount of supply to house everyone in need of all types of shelter.

This CBC article –> ‘Toronto’s Expanded Multiplex Era Is Coming. But How Much Housing Will It Actually Provide?‘ addresses some of the challenges the city and country face in the midst of a decades-long housing crisis.



A Standing Ovation For Waiving Development Fees

A lot has been documented about the role of policy and overregulation contributing directly to high housing prices. This Financial Post article provides some sobering facts –> ‘High Cost Of Regulation Makes Housing In Canada Unaffordable‘. Above and beyond acquisition, material and labour costs, restrictions around land access and what is allowed to be built, along with fees, add a substantial amount to shelter costs.  And the report referenced in this article lands the blame squarely on the doorstep of municipal governments.

Fortunately, the City of Toronto is waiving multiplex development charges, even if an owner converts or builds the units over time. It’s actions like this that will encourage development. Our friends at Storeys offer additional insights –> ‘Development Charge Exemptions For Multiplexes A Good Step, But Not Enough’.



Devil’s Advocate

I believe granting property owners the as-of-rights to build a laneway house or garden suite to either occupy or rent is a good thing. Except as these accessory units get constructed – at a cost that ranges from $400,000 to $750,000 depending on size and quality – it reduces the number of purchasers who can subsequently afford them.

It’s very possible someone who might otherwise have been able to purchase the property without the newer second structure is SOL, leaving them to compete for a diminishing pool of single-family dwellings against a larger group of Buyers. Kind of like when, in 2021, only 6% of properties selling in Toronto’s 35 MLS Districts sold for at, or under, $999,999 in 2021 (dropping from 22% the year before, and climbing back up to 15.5% in 2022 due to rising interest rates. Here’s that post —> High-Ratio Homebuyers Take Advantage Of Price Moderation In Toronto Real Estate.

The same holds true with this multiplex as of right. As more and more multiplexes get built over time, the pool of freehold single-family houses will diminish, meaning they’ll truly become shelters for the rich. However, all those potential 4-unit condos in their place will be more affordable to families.


The Urbaneer blog is the place to find updates and newsworthy headlines as Toronto adapts to these new regulations!



If you enjoyed this blog, you may find these of interest too:

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On Garden Suites In Toronto, By The Architect Builders Collaborative, Sustainable, & Urbaneer

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Dear Urbaneer: How Can I Best Prepare My Home For Sale On A Budget?

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Want to have someone on your side?

Since 1991, I’ve steered my career through a real estate market crash and burn; survived a slow painful cross-country recession; completed an M.E.S. graduate degree from York University called ‘Planning Housing Environments’; executed the concept, sales & marketing of multiple new condo and vintage loft conversions; and guided hundreds of clients through the purchase and sale of hundreds of freehold and condominium dwellings across the original City of Toronto. From a gritty port industrial city into a glittering post-industrial global centre, I’ve navigated the ebbs and flows of a property market as a consistent Top Producer. And I remain as passionate about it today as when I started.

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Thanks for reading!


-The Urbaneer Team

Steven Fudge, Sales Representative
& The Innovative Urbaneer Team
Bosley Real Estate Ltd., Brokerage – (416) 322-800


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Celebrating Thirty-One Years As A Top-Producing Toronto Realtor


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